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The relative abundance changes with cosmic ray energy — the highest energy cosmic rays tend to be heavier nuclei.
The hadronic component comprises protons (p) and neutrons (n).
This ‘secondary radiation’ essentially has the same energy as the initial interaction.
Through successive interactions, energy is lost until the particles have insufficient energy to cause a spallation reaction upon collision with another particle.
The accelerated particles cause a cascade of interactions in the upper atmosphere as they strike more atmospheric nuclei, creating additional particles and high energy radiation.
The particles continue in the same direction, while photons are emitted in all directions. The cosmic ray cascade has essentially three components: ) are all leptons, which have no sub-structure and are not composed of simpler particles).