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The former includes also correct writing, and the latter correct editing of MSS.
Grammar teaching Quintilian divides into two parts, the science of correct speech and the explanation of the poets, though it should not be confined to poets.
It is surprising and yet not surprising that such a history has never been attempted before. The over-subtle Greek mind, in its analysis of oratory as of philosophy, ran into precisely the same sort of excesses as the medieval mind did in the analysis of theology. ' Lastly, preparatory to the Senate, the praise and blame of laws, i.e. 117-138, had established an Athenaeum including public grammar school buildings. An annona was the yearly pay of an ordinary soldier or day labourer, so that the grammar schoolmaster was reckoned as worth twelve times, and the rhetorician twenty-four times an ordinary man. 414 Honorius and Theodosius extended the privileges of grammar masters, rhetoric masters, and philosophy preceptors, to their wives and children, their sons even being exempt from military service.
It is surprising in view of the interest of the subject and the wealth of illustrative material; but it is not surprising when it is remembered that, before the year 1892, few guessed and fewer knew that there were any public or grammar schools - two terms for the same thing - in England at all, except Winchester and Eton, before the reputed creation of schools by that boy king. In fact, the Greek rhetorician was the intellectual father of the Oxford schoolman. speeches on the model of a minister introducing a bill or moving to repeal an act; and trying fictitious cases, preparatory for the Courts. 140-162, extended the system beyond Italy and 'bestowed honours and stipends on rhetoricians and philosophers in every province'. So that if 52 a year was the pay of a working man, the schoolmaster received 624 or 1248 a year. In the later Roman Empire endowed grammar and rhetoric schools were ubiquitous.
Educational Charters and Documents, lii and 582 pp. Gives the text and translation of salient documents illustrating the existence and conduct of schools from the first mention by Bede of the institution of a grammar school in East Anglia in 631, copied from that at Canterbury, to the scheme for Andover Grammar School in 1909. Latin being his mother-tongue he had learnt it naturally and without trouble, but Greek was dinned into him with difficulty and with fierce threats and punishments.
Of the 161 documents printed, 142 relate to the period before 1547, and 19 of these to the period before the Norman Conquest. An explanation of the origin and true meaning of the term. Greek he therefore never learnt properly, he could not understand the Greek fathers on the Trinity, and falls into some strange mistakes over the New Testament in consequence (Sources of the De Civitate Dei, 1906).
Preliminary pages Chapter I (1-13) Our oldest school - Canterbury Chapter II (14-30) The Greek and Roman models Chapter III (31-45) Theodore of Tarsus and Aldhelm of Winchester Chapter IV (46-66) The schools of Northumbria: Bede and Alcuin Chapter V (67-75) Alfred the Great and the school of Winchester Chapter VI (76-95) The schools from Edward the Elder to Edward the Confessor Chapter VII (96-155) The schools from Lanfranc to Becket Chapter VIII (156-178) University colleges, collegiate churches, and schools Chapter IX (179-200) The era of school statutes Chapter X (201-212) The Black Death and Winchester College Chapter XI (213-234) The almonry of choristers' schools in the monasteries Chapter XII (235-276) The fifteenth century and humanism Chapter XIII (277-332) Henry VIII and the schools Index (333-308) The Schools of Medieval England was prepared for the web by Derek Gillard and uploaded on 12 March 2011. For these last items he is only repeating Greek formulæ and does not represent actual Roman practice. 305-306, with vicarious liberality, ordered the municipality of Augustodunum (Autun) to pay Eumenius, the master of the rhetoric school, from the public funds a salary of 600,000 sesterces (4800 a year). According to Augustine and others, he also by edict prohibited Christians from teaching in the schools; but as there is no record of any such edict forthcoming, this accusation must be received with the caution due to all the statements made by early Christian apologists about their opponents. 376, went even further in extending the interference of the central authority, charging the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul that 'in all towns which are called metropolis', equivalent in modern parlance to county boroughs, 'notable professors should be elected', and paid according to a scale of salaries laid down, viz.
Journal of Education, October, November, December, 1910. 'Besides', he asks, 'after you have driven the boy by flogging, what will you do with him as a young man, when you cannot hold this over him, though his tasks are more difficult?
in that of Hannibal relating the passage of the Alps, and persuasive arguments (suasorias), as e.g. 'So that those old enough for more advanced studies remain at school and learn rhetoric of grammarians, with the absurd result that a boy is not thought fit to go to a master of speech before he has learnt how to speak.' Quintilian fixes no age at which boys should leave the grammar school for the school of rhetoric; except 'when they are fit'.
The rhetoricians would not teach anything but forensic or parliamentary speaking (deliberativas judicialesve materias), leaving to the grammarians speaking in fictitious characters (prosopopoias), as e.g.
How many boys were too few or too many we are not told.
This school should be not too large and not too small.