They brought fast horses and a large retinue of Baghdad artists.
It was Shah Jahan, however, the third of the great Persian shahs, who was so taken with the beauty of the Kashmir Valley that he established a residence there. The shahs were Muslim rulers, and so we see them in their Kashmiri portraits, replete with turbans, pictured in elaborate gardens and royal gatherings called "durbars," preparing to hunt deer, leopards -- what have you.
They have fought two of their three wars since 1947 over their competing claims to the region.
The fighting has become a predictable cycle of violence as the region convulses with decades-old animosities between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, where rebel groups demand that the territory be united either under Pakistani rule or as an independent country.
Literary sources indicate that religious paintings were worshipped as early as the 5th century by both Hindus and Buddhists.
The fragments are nearly intact, allowing the viewer to appreciate their exuberant design and impressive 3D effect. Handcolored manuscript pages and the covers that bound them are perhaps the earliest examples of portable painting.
The most interesting of the album pages are two examples rendered in opaque watercolor and gold on paper, dating to 1680.
In Review of Troops, soldiers mounted on horseback await in parade position.
India accuses Pakistan of arming and training anti-India rebels and also helping them by providing gunfire as cover for incursions into the Indian side.
Pakistan denies this, saying it offers only moral and diplomatic support to the militants and to Kashmiris who oppose Indian rule. Nearly 70,000 people have been killed in the uprising and the ensuing Indian military crackdown.