Guidelines for mandating the use of ipsec

In computing, Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a secure network protocol suite of IPv4 that authenticates and encrypts the packets of data sent over an IPv4 network.

Because of the complexity or immaturity of the IP security protocols, the initial IPv4 was developed without or barely with security protocols such that the IP version was incomplete, open or left for further research development.

IPsec includes protocols for establishing mutual authentication between agents at the beginning of the session and negotiation of cryptographic keys to use during the session.

IPsec can protect data flows between a pair of hosts (host-to-host), between a pair of security gateways (network-to-network), or between a security gateway and a host (network-to-host).

A monotonic strictly increasing sequence number (incremented by 1 for every packet sent) to prevent replay attacks.During this period the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) IP Security Working Group formed The Security Authentication Header (AH) is derived partially from previous IETF standards work for authentication of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) version 2.Authentication Header (AH) is a member of the IPsec protocol suite.The SP3D protocol specification was published by NIST in the late 1980s, but designed by the Secure Data Network System project of the US Department of Defense.Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) is a member of the IPsec protocol suite, it provides origin authenticity through source authentication, data integrity through hash functions and confidentiality through encryption protection for IP packets.The algorithm for authentication is also agreed before the data transfer takes place and IPsec supports a range of methods.Authentication is possible through pre-shared key, where a symmetric key is already in the possession of both hosts, and the hosts send each other hashes of the shared key to prove that they are in possession of the same key.As a part of the IPv4 enhancement, IPsec is a layer 3 OSI model or Internet Layer for an end-to-end security scheme operating in the Internet Protocol Suite in version 4, while some other Internet security systems in widespread use are above the layer 3, such as Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Shell (SSH), operate in the upper layers at the Transport Layer (TLS) and the Application layer (SSH).IPsec can automatically secure applications at the IP layer. This brought together various vendors including Motorola who produced a network encryption device in 1988, the work was openly published from about 1988 by NIST and, of these, Security Protocol at Layer 3 (SP3) would eventually morph into the ISO standard Network Layer Security Protocol (NLSP).Optionally a sequence number can protect the IP sec packet's contents against replay attacks, The length of this Authentication Header in 4-octet units, minus 2.For example, an AH value of 4 equals 3×(32-bit fixed-length AH fields) 3×(32-bit ICV fields) − 2 and thus an AH value of 4 means 24 octets, although the size is measured in 4-octet units, the length of this header needs to be a multiple of 8 octets if carried in an IPv6 packet.

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